Maxay Qabataa Maxkamadda Cadalaada ee Caalamka (International Court of Justice ICJ)?

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Thursday August 26, 2021 - 12:06:22 in Sharci
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    Maxay Qabataa Maxkamadda Cadalaada ee Caalamka (International Court of Justice ICJ)?

    Faallo: Maxay Qabataa Maxkamadda Cadalaada ee Caalamka (International Court of Justice ICJ

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Faallo: Maxay Qabataa Maxkamadda Cadalaada ee Caalamka (International Court of Justice ICJ


Hordhac

Si loo fahmo dacwadda ka dhaxeysa labada wadan ee Somaliya iyo Kenya, taas oo la xidhiidha muranka Xad Biyoodka badda (Martime Delimitation) ee ay 28 August 2014 u gudbisey Somaliya Maxkamadda Cadaalada ee Caalamka ICJ. Waxa uu qoraalkani sharaxi doona sida ay u shaqeyso Maxkamadda Cadaalada ee Caalamka ICJ. Sidoo kalena waxaan qoraal gooni ah oo daba socda kaga hadli doono dulucda iyo habka ay u dhacdey dacwadda u dhaxeysa Somalia iyo Kenya.

 

Taariikhda Maxkamadda Cadaalada ee Caalamka ICJ

 

Taariikh ahaan waxa hore u jirey nidaamyo ay ku garnaqsadaan wadamadu hadii uu qabsi yimaado dhexdooda, waxase mid rasmi ah oo wadamo badan oo caalimi ah isla qaateen u horeeyey Maxkamadda Guddida Dhexdhexaadinta ee joogtada ah loo yaqaan Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) oo lagu asaasey kulankii Hague Peace Conference ee sanadkii 1899. Kulankaas oo ay ka soo qayb galeen 26 dal soona qaban qaabiyey boqorkii dalka Russia ee la odhanjirey Russian Tsar Nicholas II, waxana daba socdey kulan labaad oo dhacey 1907 oo uu soo qaban qaabiyey Madaxweynaha dalka Mareyka Theodore Roosevelt, waxana ka soo qayb galay 44 wadan oo ka soo jeeday Europe, Mareykan iyo Ruushka. waxana ay wadamad ku galeen 13 heshiisyo oo looga dan lahaa in Hubka laga dhigo, la sameeyo shuruuc la xidhiidha waqtiyada dagaalka iyo dambiyada la galo waqtiga dagaalka (Disarmament, Law of War and war crimes). Madaama ay jireen colaado ka dhex taagna wadamadaas. Kulanadaas oo lagu heshiiyey in hadii muran iyo khilaaf soo dhex galo wadama ay u dhameystaan qaab nabadeed iyadoo la adeegsanayo Maxkamadda Guddidada Dhexdhexaadinta e Joogtada ah PCA.

 

Ka dib dagaalkii kobaad ee aduunka (World War I ee 28 July 1914 ilaa 11 November 1918) waxa la asaasey League of Nations oo ahaa urur ay ku bahoobeen wadamada caalamka, sidoo kalena waxa la sameeyey Maxkamadda Joogtada ah ee Cadaalada Caalamka (Permanent Court of International Justice PCIJ) sanadkii 1922. Guul darooyin la soo darisey League of Nations oo ay ugu weyneyd inuu baajin kari wayey Dagaalkii Labaad ee Aduunka darteed waa uu burburey.

 

Ka dib Dagaalkii labaad ee aduunka (World War II ee Sep 1, 1939 ilaa Sep 2, 1945) sanadkii1945 Waxa la aasaasey Ururka Qaramada Midoobey (UNITED NATIONS) oo lagu badaley League of Nations. Sidoo kalena isla sanadkaa waxa la asaasey Maxkamadda Cadaalada ee Caalamka (International Court of Justice ICJ) oo badashey Maxkamadda Joogtada ah ee Cadaalada Caalamka (PCIJ) waxayna howlgalkii bilowdey April 1946.

 

Halkee ayey ku taalo Maxkamada ICJ? Shuruucdeeayey ku dhisantahay Maxkamadda ICJ? Waa Imisa Tirada Garsoorayaasha ka howlgala Maxkamadda ICJ? Halkee ayaa laga soo doorta Garsoorayaasha Maxkamadda ICJ? Waana muddo imisa sanno muddo xileedkoodu?

Halka ay ku Taalo

Maxkamadda waxay ku taala dhismaha loo yaqaan Peace Palace ee Magaalada Hague ee dalka Netherland. Waxana magaalada Hague looga yeedha magaalada Nabada iyo Cadaalada (the city of peace and Justice) waxana ku yaala Maxkamado badan oo kale sida:

- Permanent Court of Arbitration,

- International Criminal Court,

- Yugoslav Tribunal,

- The Appeal Chamber of the Rwanda Tribunal,

- The Special court for Sierra Leone iyo

- Lebanon Tribunal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shuruucda Aasaaska u ah Maxkamadda ICJ

Maxkamadu waxa ay ku asaasantahay isla markaana ay ku shaqeysa Shuraacda kala ah:

1. Axdiga Qaramada Midoobey (UN Charter 1945) - Cutubkiisa XIV qodobada 92 ilaa 96 waxa lagu asaasey Maxkamadda 1CJ.Maxkamadda ICJ waa ka mid tahey 6 waaxood ee Qaramada Middoobey

2. Sharciga Maxkamadda ICJ (ICJ statute 1965) oo dhigaya Qaabdhismeedka Maxkamadda, Awooda Maxkamadda iyo Habraaca Dacwadaha ay u qaado Maxkamadda ICJ

3. Xeerka Maxkamadda ICJ (Rules of Court 1978) waa qodobo Kaaba Sharciga Maxkamadda ICJ statute waana qodobo aad usii faahfaafinaya sharciga Maxkamadda iyo sida ay u shaqeyso.

4. Hagayaal (Practices and Directions) Maxkamaddu ay soo saarey laga soo bilaabo 2001, hagayaashaas oo la xidhiidha nidaamka ay wadama uga hor muuqanayaan Maxkamadda, oo iyaguna sidoo kale ah kabayaal shuruucda hore.

Garsoorayaasha Maxkamadda ICJ

Maxkamadda ICJ waxa ka howlgala 15 Garsoore, oo ka kala yimaada 5 garsoore oo ay soo magacaaban 5ta xubnood ee joogtada ah ee Golaha Amaaanka ee Qaramada ah (UNSC) oo kala ah (USA, RUSSIA, CHINA, FRENCE AND UK). Iyo 10 Garsoore oo laga soo magaacabo Golaha Sare ee Qaramada Midoobey (United Nation General Assembly UNGA).

 

Muddo Xileedka Garsoorayaashu waa 9 sanno.

 

Garsoorayaashu waa qaar ku adeega xirfadooda shaqsiyeed, mana matelaan wadama ay ka soo jeedaan.

 

 

 

 

 

Awooda Garsoor ee Maxkamadda ee la xidhiidha Dulucda Dacwadda (Subject Matter Jurisdiction)

 

Awooda Garsoore ee Maxkamaddu ee la xidhiidha dulucda ama waxa lagu muransanyahay waa mid balaadhan oo aanu la cayimin, waxaana ilaa hada ay ka garnaqdey arimo badan oo ay ka mid yihiin:

a. Muranada xadka dhulka (Territorial dispute)

b. Muranada Xadka Badda (Maritime Delimitation)

c. Sharcinimada Adeegsiga xooga (The Legality of Use of force)

d. Ku Xadgudub waajibaad ee heshiisyada calami ah (Violation of the Treaty/Convention obligations)

e. Adeegsiga hubka sida nukliyeerka (Use of nuclear weapons)

f. Illaalinta Deegaanka (Protection of the Environment)

g. Xasaanada Madaxda dowladda. (Immunities of High-level governmental officials and states). Iyo

h. Xadka kaluumeysi ee wadan leeyahay (Fisheries Jurisdictions).

 

 

Dacwadaha loo Gudbin karo Maxkamadda ICJ

 

Dacwadaha ay qaado Maxkamadda ICJ waa laba nooc oo kala ah:

 

1. Ka Garnaqis muran ama khilaaf u dhaxeeya wadamo (Contentious Cases). Waxana ay Maxkamadda ICJ qaadey Markii Asaasey ilaa bishii 3aad ee 2021 152 dacwadood oo noocan ah.

2. Talo-bixin ay siiso waaxyaha Qaramada Midoobey (Advisory Opinions). Maxkamadda waxa talo sharci soo weydiisan kara waaxaha kala duwan ee Qaramada midoobey sida Golaha sare (UNGA) ama Golaha Amaanka (UNSC). Sidoo kalena waxa talo weydiin kara hayadaha caalimiga ah ee arimaha gaarka u qaabilsan Qaramada Midoobey sida World Health Organization, waxaaney wax ka weydiin karaan Talo sharci oo hoos timaada waajibadkoda (mandate). Si ay u waydiiyaan Maxkamadda Taladaas Sharci waa inay ogalaanshiyo ka helaan Golaha Sare Qaramada Midoobey (UNGA). Taladaasina waa inaaney la xidhiidhin muran sharci (legal dispute). Waxana xusid mudan inaaney taladaasi noqoneyn mid ay ku qasbantahay hayada soo weydiisey (not binding).

Waxa ka reeban Wadamadu inay soo waydiistan Talobixin sharci Maxkamadda ICJ. markii Asaasey ilaa bishii 3aad ee 2021 Maxakamadu waxay bixisey Talo-Bixin sharci 27 dacwadood.

 

 

Hadaan si faahfaahino dacwaddaha la xidhiidha murada dhex mara iyo khilaafaadka soo dhexgala wadama ee ay usoo gudbistaan (contentious cases).

 

Maxkamadda si ay ugu garnaqdo wadama muran ka dhaxeeyo, uga horeyn waa iney ogalaanshiyo ka heshaa labada wadan ee muranka sharci dhexyaalo (states consent).

 

Wadama ogalaanshiyahaa waxay ku bixin karaan habab kala duwan:

- Wadama muranku dhexyaalo oo ku heshiiya iney dacwadooda u gudbistaan Maxkamadda, ogalaanshiyaha noocan ah waxa uu ku saleysan yahay oo kaliya muranka dacwadda ay markaa isku hayaan, waxana ay wadamadu heshiiskaas galaan ka dib muranka marku dhasho (Special Agreement)

- Hababka ogalaansiyo wadamadu u bixiyaan ee muranada dhici kara mustaqbalka waa laba:

a) In wadan qayb ka yahay Heshiis calami ah (Treaty or Convention) oo waajibanaya in murada la xidhiidha heshiiska loo gudbiyo Maxkamadda ICJ (Compromissory Clause);

b) Wadan si iskii ah ugu baaqey inuu ogalyahay ikhtisaaska Maxkamadda dacwadd kasta oo laga soo gudbiyo (Declaration Accepting the Compulsory Jurisdiction of the Court).

 

 

Habraaca dacwadda ay u qaado Maxkamadda Cadaalada ee Caalamku waa sidan.

1. Marka hore Maxkamaddu waa inay heshaa ogalaanshiyaha wadamada (states consent).

2. Ka dib waxa wadanka dacwoonaya soo gudbistaa arjigiisa dacwadda (filling an application);

3. Maxkamadu waxay dhinacyada (wadama muranku ka dhaxeeyo) fursad u siisaa iney soo gudbistaan doodahooda qoraalka ah (submission of written arguments), soo gudbintaa qoraalada oo inta badan qaadata muddo laba ilaa saddex todobaad.

4. Sidoo kalena soo gudbistaan wixii cadeymo ah ee ay ku xoojinayaan doodaas.

5. Maxkamaddu waxay qabataa fadhi dood-afeed ku jeediyaan dhinacyadu (parties present their arguments orally). Fadhigaas oo ka qabsooma hoolka loo yaqaan Great Hall of Justice in Peace Place. Waxaad ku maqli kartaa doodaha noocaas ah oo garyaqaanada qaarkood ugu yeedhayaan doodaha Gebogabada ee dacwadda (closing submissions).

6. Ka dib Maxkamaddu xukun ayey dacwadda u dirtaa. inta badan waxa uu qaataa 6 bilood iney ku soo saarto.

7. Maxkamaddu waxay soo saarta xukun cidkasta heli karto (the judgment is delivered in public);

8. Xukunka Maxkamaddu waa kama dambeys, ma jiro meel kale oo looga racfaan qaato.

9. Xukunka Maxkamaddu waa waajib iney fuliyaan dhinacyadu (binding).

 

Waxa jira dacwaddo yeelan kara is-hortaag inta aan la galinba dulucda dacwadda (preliminary Objection), waxa laga yaaba in dhinacyada dacwadda ay qaar dood ishortaag ah ka soo gudbiyaan sida;

- inaaney Maxkamaddu awood u laheyn dacwadda,

- In aan la aqbili kareyn arjiga dacwadd furashada oo uu leeyahay ceebo sharci,

Maxkamadu waxay fursad u siisa dhinaca kale inuu ka soo jawaabo is-hortaagaas qaab qoraal ah. Sidoo kalena waxay qabata fadhiyo dood-afeed ah. Ka dibna waxay soo saarta go’aan la xidhiidha is-hortaagaas.

Gebogebadi

Maxkamaddan Cadaalada ee Caalamka ICJ waxa ay tahay Maxkamad u Garsoorta Wadamada Caalamka wixii muran iyo khilaaf soo kala dhex gala. Waxana ay ku shaqeysa sharciga caalamiga ah ee wadama (International Law).

Qoraalkan waxaan ku sharaxney waxa ay tahay Maxkamadda ICJ sida; taariikhda Maxkamadda, dacwaddaha ay qaadi karto, cida usoo gudbisan karta, habraaca dacwaddaha ay qaado iyo shurucda ay ku asaasantahey.

 

Qoraalka xiga waxaanu ku sharaxi doona dacwadda Xad biyoodka Badda (Maritime Delimitation) ee u dhaxeysa Somaliya iyo Kenya.

 

Allaa Mahad Leh

 

Diyaariyey Ali Mohamed Ali Odey

LLM (Public International Law), MIR & LLB

Lecturer at UOH

+25263471911

Caliodey@gmail.com


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