Dacwadda Muranka Badda ee Somaliya V Kenya

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Saturday October 16, 2021 - 10:53:23 in Sharci
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    Dacwadda Muranka Badda ee Somaliya V Kenya

    Hargeisa- Waxaan halkan ku soo koobi doona nidaamki iyo xukunki ka soo baxay dacwadda Muranka Badda ee Somaliya v Kenya. Iyadoo aanu qoraal hore ka sameynay 26 – August- 2021, "waxa ay qabato Maxkamadda Cadaalada Caalamku ee ICJ". Kaa

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Hargeisa- Waxaan halkan ku soo koobi doona nidaamki iyo xukunki ka soo baxay dacwadda Muranka Badda ee Somaliya v Kenya. Iyadoo aanu qoraal hore ka sameynay 26 – August- 2021, "waxa ay qabato Maxkamadda Cadaalada Caalamku ee ICJ". Kaasi oo hordhac u ahaa si akhristuhu u fahmo sida ay u shaqeyso Maxkamadda ICJ. Hadaba qoraaladani waa kuwo loogu talo galey cilmi is weydaarsi.


Hadii aan u soo noqdo Dacwadda Muranka Badda ee Somaliya iyo Kenya waxay la xidhiidha Cabir Baddeed ka lagu muransan yahay in lagu qiyaasa 142,000 square Kilometers (boqol kun oo kilometer laba jibaaran ama 41,000square km. Waana goob ay qani ku ah kheyraadka dabiiciga ah sida saliida caydiin (oil) iyo kaluumeysigaba (fishery).



Dacwaddan waxa ka furtey Maxkamadda Cadaalaada ee Caalamka (ICJ) dalka SomaliyaTariikhdu markey aheyd 28 August 2014.Arjiga dacwadda Furashada ee dalka Somaliya waxay Maxkamadda kaga dalbaneysa in loo sameeyo soohdinta badda ee ay xadka ka wadaagan dhinaca Kenya ee xigta Badweynta indiya, laga bilaabo Badda Dalka (Territorial Sea), Qaybta Dhaqaalaha ee Gaarka ah (Exclusive Economic Zone) Iyo Qalfoof badeedka (Continental Shelf)ilaa xadkaga dhaafsan 200M.

 

Kenya waxay Arjigan kaga soo jawaabtey is- hortaag hor dhac ah (preliminary Objection) ay u soo gudbisey Maxkamadda 07 October 2015, taas oo ay ku xuseyso in aaney Maxkamadda ICJ awood u laheyn qaadista dacwadda, madaama uu jiro is af-garad MOU Sanadkii 2009 dhex marey Dalka Soomaliya iyo Kenya, kaas oo dhigaya in muranka Badda ee ka dhaxeeya ay u xalin doonan hab kale (some other method of Settlement). Waxa kale oo Kenya is hortaageedan dacwadda ku xustey inaan arjiga la aqbali Karin dacwadd furashada madama ay Soomaliya is fahan gashey in hab kale loo xaliya murankaas.

 

Dalka Somaliya waxay ka soo jawaabtey is hortaaga 5 February 2016, iyada oo kaga fal-celineysa inaan ishortaagaasi sax aheyn, isla markaanu aanu is fahankaasi MOU aheyn mid ka hor istaagaya xaqa dacwadda ay u gudbisey ICJ.

 

Maxkamaddu bilowdey 19 September 2016 fadhi dhageysi la xidhiidha is-hortaagaas (Preliminary objection), kaas oo socdey ilaa 23 September 2016, dhinac kastana waxa fursad loo siiyey doodaha uu ku taageerayo ama ku diidayo awooda Maxkamadda ee ka Garnaqista dacwadda (Jurisdiction).

 

Kenya waxay ku doodeysay iney guud ahaan ogashahey awooda garnaqiseed ee Maxkamadda (Compulsory Jurisdiction of the ICJ), balse ay sameysay waxyaalo reebaya awoodaas (reservation) oo ay ka mid tahey hadii ay u socdaan hababkale oo khilaafka lagu xaliyo, isla markaana Somaliya ay isku af garteen iney habkale ku xaliyaan khilaafkoodan.

 

Somaliya ayaa dhankeeda ku doodey in is afgaradkani MOU ku koobna oo kaliya arinta qalfoofka Baddeed ka (Continental Shelf), oo wadankii u baahan inuu sheegto qolfoof badeed ka badan 200M looga baahna inuu ka diwaangaliyo Gudida cabirka xadka qalfoof badeedka oo loo soo gaabsado (CLCS). Diwaan galintaas oo aan suurto gasheen hadaan labada dal isku afgaran inaan leyska carqaladeyn, madama wadama loo qabtey waqti kama dambeys ah oo ku ekaa sanadkii 2009ki, sidaas darteedna ay labada wadan u galeen is fahankaas sabab arintaas la xidhiidha, si aaney u lumin xaqa sheekada 150M oo dheeri ah.

 

Maxkamadda ICJ waxay goáan ka soo saartey arinka is hortaaga 2 February 2017, waxaaney ka diide wadanka Kenya Is hortaagaas. Taasi oo ka dhigeysa in dacwaddu socoto, Maxkamadda Cadaalada Caalamkuna (ICJ) ay awood dacwad qaadis u leedahey ka garnaqis dacwaddaas.

 

 

 

Qoraalada loo gudbiyey Maxkamadda (Written Pleading)

Waxa loo gudbey dacwadda Asal ka ahayd ee la xidhiidha Muranka Soohdin badeedka ee u dhaxeeya Labada Dal, dhinac kastana waxa uu soo gudbistey qoraalada la xidhiidha dacwadda:

  1. Qoraalada arjiga dacwadda ay kaga jawaabeyso (Counter Memorial) waxay Kenya soo 18 December 2017,
  2. Somaliya qoraal ay kaga fal celineyso (reply) waxay soo gudbisey 18 June 2018.
  3. Kenya lifaaqyo iyo cadeymo ayey soo gudbisey 22 February. 2021.

 

Mudaynta Dhageysiga Dacwadda

Dhamaan qoraalada ka dib Maxkamadda ICJ waxay Mudeysay dhageysiga dacwadda;

  1. mudeysay 9 - 13 September 2019, balse codsi ugu yimid dhanka Kenya darted
  2. waxay badashey mudadi ka dhigtey 04 ilaa 8 November 2019.
  3. Hadana isla codsi dib u dhigis ay soo gudbisey Kenya darted waxa ay Maxkamaddu mudeysay week ka bilaabmi doona 08 June 2020.
  4. Sidoo kale waxa ay codsatey Kenya in dib loogu dhigo, maxkamaddana waxay dib u mudeysay 15 – 24 March 2021.

Inkastoo Kenya isku deydey iney dib u dhigto umey suurto galin. Maxkamaddu waxay furtey dhageysiga dacwadda 15 march 2021.

Fadhiga dhageysiga Dacwadda (Oral Proceedings)

fadhigan waxa goob joog ahaa Dalka Somaliya, waxana ka maqnaadey xubnihii mateli lahaa Dalka Kenya. Dhageysiga dacwaddan waxa uu ahaa mid isku jir ah (Hybrid Hearing) sababtoo ah iyada oo laga duulayo Khatarta COVID 19 dhageysigu wuxuu ahaa mid xubnaha qaar ay ka soo gali karaan meelo ka baxsan Hall ka Maxkamadda ICJ (Great Hall of Justice) iyagoo adeegsanaya Via Video Link. Halka xubnaha qaarna ay goobjoog ahaayeen Fadhiga dacwadda.

Dooda Dhinacyada

 

Inkastoo dalka Kenya aanu ka qayb galin dood afeedka fadhiga dacwadda, balse waxa doodaha ay qabaan laga soo qaadanayey documents, sawirada badda iyo cadeymaha kale ee ay soo gudbiyeen Maxkamadda.

 

Halkan waxaan ku qodobeyn doona Doodahaas oo kooban:

Doodaha Dalka Somaliya

Ø Somaliya waxay ku doodeysay in cabirka soohdinta badda ee u dhaxeeya iyada iyo wadanka dariska yihiin ee Kenya loo qaado si isla’eg (Equidistant). Iyada oo laga bilaabayo xadka cidhifka dhulka ee u dhaxeeya labada wadan si toos ahna ugu soconaya koonfur bari, iyadoo si toos ah xariiqa loo dhererinayo oo siman. Waxana Dalka Somaliya adeegsaneysay Xeerka caalimiga ah ee Badaha UNCLOS III qodobadiisa 15, 74 iyo 83aad.

Ø Somaliya waxa dalbaneysa in Soohdin baddeed dhameystiran lo sameeyo oo u dhaxeeya iyada iyo Kenya dhamaan biyaha badda ha ahaato Badda Dalka (Territorial sea), biyaha xadka kheyraadka u gaar ah dalka (EEZ) Iyo Qolfoofka Badda ilaa halka u dambeysa ee 350 M (Continental Shelf).

Ø Sido kale Somaliya waxay kale oo ay ku doodey in Kenya ay ku soo xad gudubtey madax banaanida dalkeeda(violation of Somalia Sovereignty) madama ay Kenya shirkado sahmin shidaal ka sameeyey badda lagu muran yahay ay u ogalaatey, sidaas ay ugu xadgudubtey Bada Somaliya, sidaas darteedna lagu xukumo Kenya mag dhow, sido kalena laga soo wareejiyo wixii macluumaad ah ee ay ka sameysay mudadaas.

Ø Somaliya waxay ku doodey habka ay codsaneyno in badda loo cabiro ee loo yaqaan Equidistance ay ku muujisantahey Xeerkeeda dalka ee 1989, halka ay ku eedaysay in Kenya bad badeleyso habka loo cabirka loo qaadayo sida ka muuqata xeerarkooda badda ee 1989 , 1979 iyo 2005, oo dhamaan isk hor imanaya.

Ø Somaliya waxay ku dodey in Kenya aqoonsaneyd nidaamkan cabirka siman (equidistant) laga soo bilaabo 1979 ilaa 1996 sida ka muuqata sawirada khiriirada badda ee shirkadaha ay heshiisyada shidaal la galayeen.

 

 

Doodaha Dhinaca Kenya:

Ø Kenya waxay ku doodey in cabirka Soohdinta badeed ee u dhaxeeya Dalka Somaliya loo qaado hab loolka la raacayo (Parallel to latitude or latitude delimitation methodology) oo cabirka laga qaadayo xadka dhulka xeebta kor loogu weecinayo dhinaca Bari si loo raaco loolka ka sareeya. (Qareenada Somaliya waxay kaga jawaabeen inaan hore loo adeegsan habkan ay Kenya soo jeedineyso, oo aanu jirin xeer dhigaya iyo curfi caalimi ah toona).

 

Ø Kenya waxay ku doodey inay si furan u wadeen sheegadaas badda ee xadka laga cabirayo loolka laga soo bilaabo 1979 markii Madaxweynahooda sameeyey Proclamation arinta la xidhiidha. isla markaana aaney wax ishortaag ah kala kulmin Somaliya muddadaas.

 

Ø Kenya waxay doodeedan in habka cabirka ee loolka la raacayo ay sidoo kale heshiis ku yihiin Tanzania iyagoo soo qaatey laba heshiis oo dhex marey sanadadii 1976 iyo 2009 kii. (taasi oo qareenada Somaliya ku sheegeen inaaney xeer waafaqsaneyn, sidoo kale curfi aheyn (Customary). Heshiiska labadooda dal dhex mareyna aanu dalka kale waajib ku aheyn iney raacaan).

 

Ø Kenya waxay xustey hadii la raaco habka Somaliya soo jeedineyso ee Equidistance, ay waayeyso xuquuqdeeda badeed Qalfoof Badeedkaba (Continental Shelf), isla markaana ay isa soo gaadhayaan Xariiq Soohdimeedka Somaliya iyo Xariiq Soohdimeedka Tanzaniya, taasi oo kenya ka dhigeysa midaan jirin.




sawir muujinaya hadii la adeegsado xariiqa ay somaliya soo jeedineyso in ay is goyn doonan ta Tanzania

 

 

 


Ø Kenya waxay ku doodey in ciidamadeedu badda halka lagu muransanyahay howlagalo amni ka fuliyeen afar jeer oo laba waqti ahaayeen horaantii sanadadii 1990 halka labada kalena ahayeen 2008 iyo 2011, qareenadu waxay kaga jawaabeen in labada hore ee 1990 kii waxay aheydeen mar Somaliya aaney laheyn dowladd awood leh (no effective government) halka labada taariikhood ee dambe muranka badda uu soo ifbaxayeyba.

 

 

 

Xukunka Maxkamadda Cadaaalada Caalamka (ICJ)

Maxkamaddda Cadaalada ee Caalamka (ICJ), waxay xukun ka soo saartey Dacwaddan 12 October 2021. Xukunkaas oo si kooban ay Maxkamaddu lix arimood kaga go’aan gaadhey, waana sidan:

1.Waxa u soo ifbaxday Maxkamadda inaanu jirin Soohdin badeed ay ku heshiiyeen labada dale e Soomaliya iyo Kenya, oo la habraacayo loolka (Parallel of Latitude).

2.Waxay go’aamisey in soohdin badeedka kala xadeynaya Badda Somaaliya iyo Kenya uu ahaado xariiq toosan (straight line) ee jihada saxda ah ee dhinaca ay ujeedo badu, iyada jeexiyo xariiga biyaha hoose ee badda (Low-water Line), iyadoo la raacayo cabirka 1° 39' 44.0" S and 41° 33' 34.4" E (WGS 84)



Sawirka xadka ay Maxkamadda ICJ go'aamisey ee soohdinta Badda u dhexeysa Kenya V Somaliya

 

1.Waxay go’aamisey xariiq toosan ee soohdin-badeedka Badda Dalka (territorial Sea), iyadoo la raacayo xariq u dhaxeexaya (median line) ilaa laga gaadhayo 12NM ee qiyaasta 1° 47' 39.1" S and 41° 43' 46.8" E (WGS 84) (Point A);

2.Waxay go’aamisey in iyada oo laga qaadayo cidhifka ugu dambeeya xadka Badda Dalka (Point A), loo sameeyo xariiq mida oo xadeynaya qaybta Dhaqaalaha ee Gaarka ah (EEZ) iyo Qolfoof Badeedka (continental Shelf) ilaa 200Nm ee u dhaxeeya Dalka Somaliya iyo Kenya iyada oo la raacaya xariiq isku xidhaya labada cidhif ee 1140ilaa laga gaadhayo 200nm iyado laga cabirayo xariiqa asaasiga ah ilaa xadka Badda Dalka ee kenya ee qiyaasta point ka3° 4' 21.3" S and 44° 35' 30.7" E (WGS 84) (Point B).

3.Waxay go’aamisey laga bilaabo Point B ilaa xariiqa qolfoofka Badda ilaa halka ugu dambeysa ee laga gaadho qalfoofka badda in lagu socda xariiqa isku xidhan ilaa laga gaadhayo meel ay saameyn ku yeelaneyso xuquuqda dal saddexaad.

4.Waxa la diidey Maxkamadu dalabkii Somaliya ee ay ku eedaynaysay in Kenya howlaha ay ka sameysay badda lagu muransanayaa ay ahayd mid ku xad-gudubtey waajibaadkeedi caalimiga ahaa (violated its international Obligations).

 

 

 

 

 

Sharaxaad kooban ee xukunka waxa uu u taaganyahay

1.Maxkamaddu waxay jeexday Xad badeed qeexan, taas oo aan hore u laheyn labada waddan Somliya iyo Kenya.

2.Waxay diidey diidey gabi ahaanba qaabkii ay Kenya Soo jeedineysay ee aheyd "in loo qaado cabirka badda ee xariiqa soohdinta u dhaxeeya labada dal iyada oo la adeegsanayo habka la raacayo loolka (Parallel of latitude).

3.Waxa habka la ayidey uu aad ugu dhawaa qaabkii ay Somaliya Soojeedineysay ee xariiq toos uga baxa jihada dhulka oo u soconaya jihada koonfur Galbeed ilaa badda dalka (territorial Sea), balse waxa ay sameysay sigibtir (adjustment), qaybaha dhaqaalaha gaarka ah (EEZ) iyo Qolof Badeedka ah (Continental Shelf).

4.Biyaha lagu muransanaa waxa laga soo qaadey cabirkoodu in wax yar ka yar 41,000square kilometer,

a)Somaliya waxa loo xukumey 31,000 square KM (taasoo u dhiganta in cabirkii lagu muransanaa 75% loo xukumey Somaliya)

b)Kenya waxa loo xukumey 10,000square Km (taasoo u dhiganta in Kenya loo xukumey 25%).



Gebogabadii

Xukunka Maxkamadda Cadaalada ee Caalamku ICJ, waxa uu soo afjarey murankii Badda ee muddada ka dhex taagna dalka Somaliya iyo Kenya, waxana ay Maxkamadu u jeexdey xariiq sooh dimeed caalimi ah oo wadama aduunka iyo shirkadaha caalimiguba ay tixgalin doonaan.

Sidoo kale Xukunka Maxkamadu waa kama dambeysay, mana laha Racfaan. Dhinacyadana waxaa ku waajib ah iney u hogaansamaan sida uu dhigayan xeerka Caalimaga ah.

 

Allaa Mahad Leh

Diyaariyey Ali Mohamed Ali Odey

LLM (Public International Law), MIR & LLB

Lecturer at UOH

+252634731911

Caliodey@gmail.com




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